Information and Communication Technology (ICT) As an Information Tool


Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the traditional usage of data and information processing to digital computerization.The advent of computer and telecommunication technology has brought about changes in organization structure.
Information transmission is the transfer of information from one source to a destination through voice and sound images ie microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone to cellular phone, MP3 players and many more. The gadgets or devices used in ICT are too numerous and inexhaustible. Some of them are discussed below.

Radio: This is an effective way of transmitting audio or voice information.  Information broadcast on radio reach out to thousands of audience at the same time in a different geographical location 
Television: this is an effective method of transmitting information.  It combines the quality of audio together with visual.  It is therefore an audio-visual method of information transmission.
Computer: It is an electronic data processing machine used for transmission of textual and graphical information.   
Satellite: This is an information transmission method through cables or wireless by the use of a satellite dishes 
VSAT: This is advance telecom equipment for receiving digital broadcast VSAT for very small aperture terminal 
Fax machine: It is an age-long method of transmitting textual and graphical message.  It consists of the features of photocopying with effective information transmission.
Telephone: Telephone is a telecommunication equipment or device used in transmitting sound across a distance 
GSM TECHNOLOGY: GSM stands for Global system of Mobile Communication.  It is an ICT telecommunication device.  It is the most popular mobile phone as the world today.  GSM allows network operators to offer “roaming” services.  The word roaming is the ability of the customer to use their phone wherever they are at anytime (this has to do with the availability of Network) with GSM when you have a mobile phone with a line you can be connected to the whole world.  You can roam to another region or country and use the services of any Network operator in that region that has roaming agreement with your GSM network operator.  Messages can be sent to another subscriber on the service, and an acknowledgement of receipt provided to the sender SMS can be used in a cell broadcast mode for sending messages.  Message can be stored in the SIM card for later retrieval.

Prominent GSM operators in Nigeria include” Globalcom (glo) 
MTN-NIG
ECONET/V-MOBILE./CELTEL.ZAIN
NITEL/MTEL
MULTILINKS 
VISAFONE
STARCOMMS
ETISALAT

GSM  combines the feature of super voice quality and data transmission.  The advent of GSM technology has indeed turn the world into a global village .

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) 
This is a type of retail banking Technology that has the capability to make enquiry on customer balances, interest and exchange rate, money transfer, withdrawal, deposit and account transfer.
One area where the application of information Technology has brought automation to large number of people is in the banking sector.  Automated teller Machine is now located outside in almost all major banks. This Technology advancement has also caught up with Nigerians.  It is found in almost all Nigerian banks.  ATM are also found in the remote locations such as supermarkets, airports, and university campus.  ATM machines are operated through the use of ATM card.  This is referred to as electronic banking.  
  Advantages of Electronic  Banking   (E-Banking ) 
  1. It brings about faster services 
  2. It increases trust and confidence in banking system 
  3. It reduced the problem of uncleared cheque
  4. It  enhances the available of funds at a faster rate
  5. It makes the job of bankers less cumbersome 
 

 Disadvantages  Electronic  Banking   (E-Banking ) 

Insecurity 
Fraud 
Unemployment
Virus attack 
Cost involves in setting up electronic banking is high

In conclusion, Information Technology (IT) is the application of computers and Telecommunication equipment for automatic processing of information.  Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the combination of computers, communication equipments  (ie Telephone , Video etc) and other Technologies associated with automation.
  


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